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Programming with C++ note compatibility mode



Overview of C++
C++ is a computer programming language developed in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. C++ is an Object Oriented Programming Language, which follow oops concept like, inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction and polymorphism.
Where we use C++ Language
C++ Language is mainly used for;
·         Design Operating system
·         Design Language Compiler
·         Design Database
·         Utilities
·         Application Software





Features of C++
C++ is object oriented programming language and it is a very simple and easy language, this language have following features.
·         Simple
·         Portability
·         Powerful
·         Platform dependent
·         Object oriented oriented
·         Case sensitive
·         Compiler based
·         Syntax based language
·         Use of Pointers
Simple
Every C++ program can be written in simple English language so that it is very easy to understand and developed by programmer.
Platform dependent
A language is said to be platform dependent whenever the program is execute in the same operating system where that was developed and compiled but not run and execute on other operating system. C++ is platform dependent language.
Note: .obj file of C++ program is platform dependent.
Portability
It is the concept of carrying the instruction from one system to another system. In C++ Language.cpp file contain source code, we can edit also this code. .exe file contain application, only we can execute this file. When we write and compile any C++ program on window operating system that program easily run on other window based system.
When we can copy .exe file to any other computer which contain window operating system then it works properly, because the native code of application an operating system is same.
Powerful
C++ is a very powerful programming language, it have a wide verity of data types, functions, control statements, decision making statements, etc.
Object oriented Programming language
This main advantage of C++ is, it is object oriented programming language. It follow concept of oops like polymorphism, inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction.
Case sensitive
C+ is a case sensitive programming language. In C++ programming 'break and BREAK' both are different.
If any language treats lower case latter separately and upper case latter separately than they can be called as case sensitive programming language [Example c, c++, java, .net are sensitive programming languages.] other wise it is called as case insensitive programming language [Example HTML, SQL is case insensitive programming languages].
Compiler based
C++ is a compiler based programming language that means without compilation no C++ program can be executed. First we need compiler to compile our program and then execute.
Syntax based language
C++ is a strongly tight syntax based programming language. If any language follow rules and regulation very strictly known as strongly tight syntax based language. Example C, C++, Java, .net etc. If any language not follow rules and regulation very strictly known as loosely tight syntax based language.
Example HTML
.
Efficient use of pointers
Pointers is a variable which hold the address of another variable, pointer directly direct access to memory address of any variable due to this performance of application is improve. In C++ language also concept of pointer are available.


Applications of C++
Mainly C++ Language is used for Develop Desktop application and system software. Some application of C++ language are given below.
·         For Develop Graphical related application like computer and mobile games.
·         To evaluate any kind of mathematical equation use C++ language.
·         C++ Language are also used for design OS. Like window xp.
·         Few parts of apple OS X are written in C++ programming language.
·         Internet browser Firefox are written in C++ programming language
·         All major applications of adobe systems are developed in C++ programming language. Like Photoshop, ImageReady, Illustrator and Adobe Premier.
·         Some of the Google applications are also written in C++, including Google file system and Google Chromium.
·         C++ are used for design database like MySQL.


Compiler
A compiler is system software which converts programming language code into binary format in single steps. In other words Compiler is a system software which can take input from other any programming language and convert it into lower level machine dependent language.




Interpreter
It is system software which is used to convert programming language code into binary format in step by step process.


Assembler
·         An assembler is system software which is used to convert the assembly language instructioninto binary format in step by step process. An assembler is system software which is used to convert the assembly language instruction into binary format.





Compiler Vs Interpreter
No
Compiler
Interpreter
1
Compiler takes Entire program as input at a time.
Interpreter takes Single instruction as input at a time.
2
Intermediate Object code is generated
No Intermediate Object code is generated
3
It execute conditional control statements fastly.
It execute conditional control statements slower than Compiler
4
More memory is required.
Less memory is required.
5
Program need not to be compiled every time
Every time higher level program is converted into lower level program
6
It display error after entire program is checked
It display error after each instruction interpreted (if any)
7
Example: C, C++
Example: BASIC


Comments in C++
Generally Comments are used to provide the description about the Logic written in program. Comments are not display on output screen.
When we are used the comments, then that specific part will be ignored by compiler.
In 'C++' language two types of comments are possible
·         Single line comments
·         Multiple line comments
Single line comments
Single line comments can be provided by using / /....................
Multiple line comments
Multiple line comments can be provided by using /*......................*/
Note: When we are working with the multiple line comments then nested comments are not possible.
Rules for Writing Comments
1. Program contains any number of comments at any place.
Example
// header files
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

void main()
{
// variable declaration
int a,b,c;
a=10;
b=20;
c=a+b;
cout<<"Sum: "<<c;
getch();
}
2. Nested Comments are not possible, that means comments within comments.
Example
void main()
{
/*
/*      comments   */
*/
}
3. Comments can be splits over more than one line.
Example
void main()
{
/* main  
    Function
    Body part
*/
}
4. Comments are not case sensitive.
Example
void main()
{

/* MAIN Function BODY */

}
5. Single line comments start with "//"



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